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Solution : Q.1 (a) Shortest route from Brighton to Exeter

Table and Figure made as per data of distance is given. In Figure Yellow Colour digit notation is for a node number. The black color digit in the white box is the calculation of the shortest path of that node from the relative node and the White color digit is the distance between respective nodes.

Table Q.1(a).1 Node notation – Based on distance in m



Node Notation based on distance in m


Brighton (O) Origin


















Exeter (D) Destination


Figure : Q.1(a).1 – Distance between two locations

Table .1(a).2  Dijkstra’s Algorithm : (Consider ‘-‘  means infinity)










































(88) 87

Shortest Route: 1-3-7  (Brighton-Southmpton -Exerter )

Distance : 169m

Brighton – Southmpton (65) + Southmpton – Exerter (104)  = 169

Q.1 (b)route from Brighton to Exeter with the lowest carbon footprintprint.

The table shows the footprints of the routes


Route Number

Time (min)


CF = ID*t*10-6

London - Basingstoke





Basingstoke - Southampton





London - Bristol





Bristol - Exeter





London - Brighton





Brighton - Southampton





Southampton - Exeter





Bristol - Salisbury





Southampton - Salisbury 





Basingstoke - Salisbury





Salisbury - Exeter





Figure Shows Footprint Details of nodes as well as routes — nodes connected with the yellow line having lowest footprints.

Lowest Footprint Route is: 1-2-6-7 i.e. Brighton – London – Bristol – Exeter

FootPrints of the most economical route is 468.

 Q.1 (c) Limitation of Model :

As the Carbon footprints here depend upon the time required to travel between two nodes and there is no other dependency, this model is biased. The model does not examine the distance for footprints. As fas as the environment area concern, more the distance more the fuel will be used and thus more the environment got affected. If the route examined based on distance smallest route got the lowest carbon footprint. Livelihood and sustainability of the environment can’t be examined through this model.

  1. Evaluation and applications of ITS

Marford is a small city in central England, with a population of 200,000 and 500 cars per 1000 people. After years of depopulation in the surrounding rural area, this is finally starting to increase in population, due in part to an influx of city dwellers looking more affordable homes outside the city of London. However, much of the rural population remains elderly and at risk of social exclusion due to poor transport links. Marford itself had an industrial base that was historically based on textiles and coal, but this has now gone into decline and tourism is now an essential industry. However, the service sector is also growing in importance, with much of the employment in that sector now concentrated on a business park on the edge of town, close to the main junction with the national motorway network. Significant retail development is also planned here. 

Economically, Marford is performing at a level that is below average, but not so far below average that it is seen to merit primary government intervention. Although the motorway bypasses Marford to the north and west, the main road from the highway to another significant town to the south runs right through the middle of the city. Traffic, including heavy goods vehicles, hurts the city’s historic district. Also, congestion is compounded by many local trips made by car in the town and by the city dwellers coming into Marford to shop at new shopping malls. Consequently, the city centre is at risk of breaching the EU’s 2010 limits on oxides of nitrogen, and the poor environment threatens the town’s tourist industry. However, due to the anticipated impact of Brexit, the county government has made it clear that there is unlikely to be money available within the next ten years to pay for a bypass for the city. Marford’s Transport Plan for the city and the surrounding area has the following objectives: 

Environment – protecting historic built environments as well as the natural environment. 

Economy – to use transport to ensure that the economy prospers. 

Safety – to ensure the safety of all road users, but especially vulnerable road users and pedestrians like the elderly

Social inclusion - to meet the transport needs of all social groups. 

Accessibility – to make sure that, as far as possible, all destinations become more comfortable to reach, although not necessarily by all modes of transport. 

Currently, there are no ITS applications in use in Marford. Given a limited budget and the uncertain political conditions:

  1. Discuss the role of transportation systems management and operations, and the supporting ITS can play in reducing emissions

Transportation system the officials and action endeavors to evaluate and modify the transportation structure so release can be diminished. In case this sort of TSM (transportation system the officials) going to be clubbed with the ITS that the profitability of the structure can be extended. Here specific systems that can be made with the joint exertion of TSM and ITS.

  1. Public Transportation System with GPS Tracker and Passenger Traveling

2.Car pooing for a comparable course workplace.

3.CAB pooling for the district having generous traffic

4.Flexible working hours for the work environments

5.Availability of Transportation game plan of Organization

  1. Automated Signal all over the place which is working reliant on Traffic Analysis and Control

7.Excellent for over speeding and rule-gaining through CCTV power

  1. CCTV controlled city place having control space for traffic control

9.More usage of non-automated vehicles

Some improvement finishes this.

Signal for Priority: Signals can be altered so that as a vehicle land at an assembly, it gets a green sign sooner or the light stays green to some degree longer to decrease the time spent holding up at intersection focuses. It can improve time execution and reduce the general run time for a course without detectably upsetting sign exercises for general traffic. TSP can be joined to ship courses and timetables with the objective that need is permitted extraordinarily to transports running behind.

Transports on shoulders: On avenues, this strategy awards transports to used cleared side path shoulder as a way when traffic is moderate.

Line jumps: Queue ricochets are right turn ways or center vehicle only ways at intersection focuses which are offered a green hint before various pathways to empower the vehicle to move beyond the assembly before the general vehicle. It fills in as Lane Priority.

  1. What ITS applications might you choose to investigate for use in Marford to address environment, economy, safety, social inclusion, and accessibility? Provide a brief discussion of each application

ITS Application to discover to address

A.Environment :

Air Quality file estimations ought to be set by automated hoardings within the metropolis for mindfulness. Advancement of electric-primarily based vehicles to decrease the carbon emanation noticeable all around and to maintain up the incredible air nature of marford.

B.Economy :

Keen card framework for explorers. Arrangement of an open transportation framework to diminish the amount of cars and contamination. Confinement on close to domestic vehicle use.

C.Safety :

A site visitors signal in a joint attempt with stay location GPS which distinguishes the improvement and as indicated by way of that sign works. Separate route for walker and debilitated people for sheltered and beneficial change.

D.SocialInclusion :

Open transportation framework with the proper office like online facts accessible, plan, course, and so on., for the development of individuals inside the metropolis and nearby the metropolis which buddies the satellite tv for pc town close by moreover.

E.Accessibility :

The quantity of get focuses and quantities of voyagers – these records must be collected after one another with the assistance of price ticket records. ITS based totally price tag indow to distinguish the thickness of voyagers from numerous focuses and the executives of arrangement of the open shipping as indicated by using that.

  1. Discuss potential performance measures you would recommend to enhance sustainability and livability in Marford.                     

Rational progress of nations persistently depends upon in the wake of sorting out, arranging, perceiving, and ceaselessly reviving supportability and reasonableness of city domains and neighborhoods on the meso-and little scale scales, only. As city masses, all around, for the length of the world, have pretty as of late beated country masses, practicality of city offices is powerfully persuading of budgetary progression, social thought, abuse of organic sources and society's occupations. For city-states and insignificant foreseen nations, for example, Singapore and Qatar, solely, where there might be a particular enormous city, supportability and financial progress are a sorry decision. Wide device hypothesis has been in progress to offer a productive road organize. Furthermore, with the way of movement of an immense metro and open vehicle transportation machine, the blockage is relied on to be decreased and transportation-related ordinary masses are foreseen to b directed. Social measures are the immediate settles on a choice that are determined and besides got a handle on to have the guide of the general populace. These standards may start from the complete clear, experienced, deciphered, similarly as gave on correspondences as veiled by means of a normal populace's social entertainers. In spite of reality that those measures are noninstitutionalized, in any case, there is an inclination, by utilizing the all inclusive community, to seek after those convincing forces with respect to being directing. The wide idea of social models incorporates family benchmarks, succesful rules, demanding standards, etc. Social checks affect the use and the type of city spaces also as always affinities for people.

Singular accomplishment is the energetic first-solitary appreciate of individuals, or social events, all things considered open concerning checks of progress, with the entire parcel considered. Averageness is the proportionate term to individual accomplishment used to depict a perception of inhabitants of city center interests. The American Association for Retired Persons (AARP) considers a reasonable machine to have "moderate and turning out to be lodge, strong device capacities and advantages, and alright transportability choices, which together guide solitary independence and the devotion of occupants in metro and open activity." The Global Liveability Index (GLI), by The Economist Intelligence Unit, made as an important record for surveying city systems' accomplishment. The reason for the Liveability Index is to check inconveniences more then likely looked by people that their reasonableness and individual achievement. World urban systems are administered evaluations for more than 30 passionate and quantitative factors over the five in vogue classes of steadiness, human organizations, way of life and condition, direction, and machine. Low thickness urbanism in like manner improves dreams for regular comforts with the guide of systems for upgrading social painstaking quality and worth.

In addition, low-density city districts can be to a couple of recognition secure and versatile to predetermination models and circumstances. They can in like way supply a more noteworthy consistent and dynamically helpful outside, urging individuals to mix, and children to play in parks and open zones. A disadvantage of the low-thickness urban shape is that it renders open transportation scarcely potential and unequipped for covering the whole road course of action of a city. Thusly, low-thickness can converse with a characteristic investigate this is the high carbon influence of transportation. The in all cases of homes further address a check inside the receptiveness of business, planning, flourishing, and city help scenes to serve differing non-open settlements. In any case, low-thickness entertainment plans are perceived for being monstrous dwelling events that convey security and the receptiveness of lodge plots, out of entryways zones that ideal position families with a dynamically beneficial way of life.

The simultaneous clashes for high thickness can be a bit of exercises. Legitimately off the bat, the over the top feasibility of to be had transportation and town-if open associations, and the useful social and financial central focuses, for example, delayed social mix and flourishing affiliations. Research, notwithstanding, shows that components sway the sufficiency of open transportation and city associations, for example, solitary compensation and moderateness, which unfathomably influence the utilization of to be had transportation. Studies show that copying the thickness of a city's tenants will diminish the measure of private vehicle trips; in any case, would not segment it.

Likewise, thick urban systems are dynamically sumptuous for poor individuals, multiplying the misdistribution of cash related parties and the nonappearance of social association. At last, low-thickness yields more noteworthy space that can be focused on-region vitality age, water reusing, and sustenance creation, supporting city regions in being remarkably free.

Expansion Opportunities for Safe, Comfortable Walking, and Bicycling Walking and bicycling are significant to reasonableness and mediocrity. These modes are unimportant effort and comprehensively open. These modes give different trademark components of intrigue: they're non-dirtying modes, their contraption necessities are significantly less remarkable than assorted methods, and that they can regularly be upheld through the present day the state of affairs. Strolling and bicycling in like way give a gathering of gadget benefits: they transfer to the flourishing of individuals, fortify social cooperation that invigorates frameworks, and improve the intensity of retail locales and neighborhoods. Developing open gateways for strolling and bicycling can furthermore join seeing circumstances there those modes are, or should be, the ordinary mode. This must be possible to pull in more people by strolling and bicyclists or manage issues with adequate high volumes of these modes. While the significant the norm to help walking and bicycling, for example, walkways, bike ways, and shared-use ways—are imperative, the drawing in decent and breaking point of those modes is overwhelmingly disappeared with the business and development of the transportation gadget. For instance, site guests signal masterminding picks the portion of time individuals by methods for by walking need to head transversely over ways and to what degree they need to save up before assemblies. The person by methods for walking starting walk signals decay bedlam and help people by means of by walking with choosing higher intermingling picks by illuminating people with the guide of walking around respect to the amount of seconds staying to go over the street securely. Close by the norm overhauls, for example, progressively wide walkways, the character by utilizing strolling covers in medians, and efficient turning slip ways (a turn way dependability at a convergence point with an onlooker cover), walker commencement sign can help make by walking continuously secure and intelligently beguiling. So also, joining bike pioneer drifts at activated sign guarantees that bikes may have the option in contrast to securely cross blends promptly, especially inside the off-top time allocations.   

  1. Use the attached (Figure Q2.1) location map to illustrate your vision for Marford in terms of ITS to enhance sustainability and livability


Figure Q2.1 Marford location map

Throughout the trendy decade, 'liveability' has emerge as a relentlessly first-rate time period utilized in urban procedure, mirroring a worldwide example. Urban humans organization will all in all section well in the maximum famous liveability rankings of urban networks, in perspective on respectably low bad behavior rates, a high degree of inexperienced open space, reasonably tremendous vehicle systems, and the openness of amazing educational open entryways in the relevant bits of its large urban networks.

Liveability reflects the achievement of a machine and consists of the numerous characteristics that make a location a niche where people want to stay now and later on. In angle at the composition, the journalists of this investigation paper even more unequivocally envision a habitable spot to be one that is secured, appealing, socially solid and exhaustive, and typically realistic; with realistic and specific hotel related to work, preparing, open space, close by shops, prosperity and machine organizations, and unwinding and social possibilities; thru favorable open car, on foot and biking establishment.

Sustainability displays the greater drawn out time period organization quality and notion of development and progress. Maintainability truly stresses with the earth and the effect of development on nature. Headway in transportation ought to be situation welcoming and realistic for an intensive period of time.Marford is a city having a 200,000 population and having its base inside the quarter of the travel industry and enterprise. ITS is predicted to improve the profession and supportability.

Marford desires to actualize some maximum current innovative ITS approaches to build portability and availability. It is crucial to build up the office of ITS which improvements the protected, conservative and open well disposed reasonably priced framework. Beneath referenced enhancements could improve the best parameters.

To improve the liveability and manageability

  • Car Pooling: For the vicinity of the market where visitors clog is the issue. Carpooling is the fine possible arrangement.
  • Non-mechanized Vehicle: Promote more usage of the non-mechanized automobile.
  • Sector-smart Development: Define the division for numerous purpose development. Make the private, business, mechanical, and so forth., zones to ease improvement.
  • The automated presentation on crossing factor giving data about avenue wellbeing, secure riding and mindfulness
  • Locate the bushes with sensors and increment the amount of bushes to improve the green spread
  • Sensors for the vicinity of over speed.
  • Public Transportation framework: Provision of an open transportation framework for reasonable advancement. This type of framework is useful for the travel enterprise places likewise and the travel enterprise is key industry of marford.
  • Traffic Signals: ITS based traffic signal hels to understand the thickness of the visitors in unique territory and dependent on that transportation arranging ought to be feasible for what is to come.
  • CCTV: Installation of CCTV digital camera in an alternate open region for the sheltered development of fashionable society and to lower the unfortunate movement or episodes
  • Online Ticket Center
  • Smart Card for daily transportation clients
  • Exclusive delivery for the ladies for sheltered and advantageous improvement


250 words

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