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POVERTY

Home POVERTY

Introduction

Poverty is the state of an individual who lacks usually or socially accepted possessions of money or materials. Poverty exists when the individual lacks resources for satisfying their basic needs. This study will focus on the poverty issues of Assam and the sections of populations that are affected by poverty. Along with this, background of Salil Shetty, a leader for the problem has been presented and the leadership styles demonstrated by him will be studied. The study will also lay emphasis on the K & P style of leadership, four leadership practices demonstrated by him and the leadership issues that are faced by Salil Shetty. The thesis statement for this study is to analyse the reasons for poverty and how the outlook of Salil Shetty helps to deal with this issue

Part A

Background information about poverty

Poverty experiences are often extreme considering specific regions in Sub –Saharan Africa. Poverty is an adjective analysing condition of living as per the standards of income. People earning a living for less than US$1.90 a day can be considered as a condition of poverty. It has been administered that third world countries are facing poverty more than any first world countries. In fact, more than 9 million people are facing poverty on this date and on continuing percentage of this poverty rate, by 2030 the total poverty population can also rise up to 15 million.

Poverty

The fastest growing economies have set certain definition to understand poverty. In fact, the definition of poverty is set by the comparison of income standard. There is considerable aspect of concern the income generation and the standard of living within a country. In response to observe poverty, the sustainable development goals can be directed to establish definition of poverty.

Statistics of poverty ratio from last 10 years

Year

Percentage  (approx)

2009-2010

29.6

2010-2011

24.6

2011-2012

21.9

2012-2013

22.3

2013-2014

23.6

2014-2015

19.6

2015-2016

20.2

2016-2017

18.9

2017-2018

19.2

2018-2019

17.6


Specify the population and the area of Mumbai that is affecting from the poverty.

On a study made through the survey department, Maharashtra faces the most conditions of poverty. On an analysis made, most affected states include Mumbai, Pune and Thane. However, through a decade analysis, it has been analysed that Nandurbar district in northwest and Gadchiroli in east faces the highest rate of poverty. In fact, in a city having high income standards and one of the highest standards of living also faces the highest poverty in which the people are almost far from having the basic sanitation and water needs.

Why is poverty occurring in Mumbai?

Mumbai is the prime capital of Maharashtra and the home to a large number of people. However, the city faces major issues with a lack of support from the government in regards to Poverty issues. The high population in the city leads to major issues with unemployment and improper lifestyle conditions, leading to an increase in the number of slums. According to Tian, Risku & Collin, (2016), unemployment issues occur due to an increase in the use of new technological ideas in various ventures. These technologies also lead to an increase in problems with a lack of job availability for people.

Apart from the lack of government support, another key reason for the issue includes the climatic conditions of the State, which is hindering the growth of State. Mumbai faces significant issues relating to hot and humid climate, which leads to increased problems with a lack of employee motivation to provide their best performances. Due to a high availability of skilled employees, organizations lack in proper utilization of employee retention methods. This leads to increased issues with lifestyle sustenance, thus leading to an overall rise in poverty in Mumbai. This also leads to an increase in problems with a rise in the number of slums.

Core values at the centre of poverty

Lack of opportunities

One of the key reasons for poverty in Maharashtra and in India is the lack of opportunities and skills training to the majority of the population. The government of India has not made adequate investments in providing quality education and basic services like sanitation, health, skills training, waste management which had its consequences. This has resulted in generations of uneducated, malnourished, unskilled or semi skilled individuals who have difficulty in finding decent paying jobs (Stosich, 2016).

Lack of affordable housing

A lack of affordable housing for people, makes them settle anywhere in the city as they are address less on paper. However, with the joining of more people, it results in the emergence of entire community of undocumented settlers. As a result of that, they do not have access to basic services like water, electricity and sanitation as the authorities provide these services to those registered on paper (Smith, Lewis & Tushman, 2016).

Overcrowding

It is one of the major factors in informal settlements. Generally the illegal buildings where the people are residing, around 50 to 100 people have access to one bathrooms and due to lack in knowledge of hygiene, the families often tend to suffer  from many diseases and infections (Simon & Johnson, 2015).

Three values that are being challenged, questioned or violated

Poor agricultural practices

Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy but due to the outdated practices of farming, lack of adequate education among farmers regarding proper handling of crops and adequate infrastructure has tremendously affected the productivity in this sector (Martin, Côté & Woodruff, 2016). As a result of that, in few situations, there is lack of work for the farmers decreasing their wages and plunging the family of farmers into poverty.

Unemployment

Another reason for rising poverty in the country is due to rapid rise of population and the individuals are not provided with adequate employment opportunities. From the researches of Maringe, Masinire & Nkambule, (2015), the government are also not making adequate investments in providing skill training to the individuals and as a result of this, the unemployment rates are raising rapidly in the country.

Faulty economic liberalisation

The Liberalisation-Privatisation-Globalisation (LPG) initiative was launched by the government in 1991 was mainly directed towards attracting foreign investments by making the economy suited to the international market trends (Willcocks & Wibberley, 2015). However, the attempts in reviving the economy caused detrimental effects on the scenario of wealth distribution. As a result, the rich become richer and the poor remained the same

Part B

Brief background of Leader

The leader chosen for the issue of poverty is Salil Shetty. Salil Shetty is an Indian origin human rights activist who was born on 3rd February 1961 in Mumbai.Salil Shetty received his B.Com in Accounting in 1981 from St. Joseph’s College of Commerce and received his MBA degree in 1983 from Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He further received his MSc in Social Policy and Planning in 1991 from London School of Economics with distinction (Keane & Thakur, 2018).  He served as the Secretary General of Human Rights Organization Amnesty International from 2010 till 2018. Salil Shetty has been a long term activist on justice and poverty. The individual has been leading the worldwide work of movement for ending the human rights violations and has played a key role in carrying out Amnesty international’s work to the countries of Global South.

Salil Shetty has also served as the director of United Nations Millennium Campaign from 2003 to 2010, creating significant awareness and accountability for the Millenium Development Goals all around the world (Hazy & Uhl-Bien, 2015). He was also the Chief Executive of Action aid, which is one of the leading NGO worldwide from 1998 to 2003.

Leadership style

Salil shetty has been leading the worldwide work of movement for ending human rights violations, hence engages in participative style of leadership in which he obtains inputs from the individuals for making appropriate decisions. He strongly believes in collaborative works in human rights where North based international organizations like Amnesty International engage into talks with the locals and international organizations of Global south (Day, Gu & Sammons, 2016). He also believes that no matter how big organization is Amnesty, it is required to allow the victims to speak for themselves and stand up for unfair treatment.

Part C

K&P Model Evaluation

Based on the K&P Model, Kouzes and Posner from their researches devised that leadership practices should consider five practices which includes:

  • Inspire a shared vision
  • Model the way
  • Challenge the process
  • Encourage the heart
  • Enable others to act

A true leader is able to have a clear vision of the future and devise a strategic plan for the entire team to comprehend. The leader should always listen first and propose a shared vision statement. Inspiring a shared vision is essential in bringing the individuals within a business or organization together for fostering commitment for creating a shared future. The transformational leaders believe that they are able to make a difference by visioning the future and creating an image for the organization, which will be unique. These leaders inspire a vision such that they can provide their followers with a positive outlook. Salil Shetty believed that the poor and marginalized people are required to become primary decision makers at every stages of life (Booth, Henwood & Miller, 2017). The Sustainable Development Goals are to integrated and resourced in national and local budgets and plans and are to be implemented in line to the current human rights obligations of the state. The Individuals needs to be aware of the promises that are made by the government and what they have delivered. If the government has not delivered they are needed to be able to hold them to account through independent mechanisms.

Challenging the process within an organization enables the leaders in creating, recognizing or supporting new ideas. Thee leader is needed to be able to turn these ideas into actions and adopting new products, services and processes.  An efficient leader should be able to search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change grow and improve. From the views of Birthal, Roy & Negi (2015), he should be able to experiment and take risks by generating small wins and learning through mistakes. They should be able to challenge opportunities, which will test his skills, abilities and looking out for new opportunities and seeking out innovative ways for improving their organizations. Transformational leaders are able to experiment and take risks with a new approach. The move initiated by Salil Shetty enabled ActionAid for working towards providing all its various country programs in a more equal way in working of the organization. The new structure allowed ActionAid in working with reality and making the actions performed by the organization more effective towards eradicating poverty.

Enabling the other employees within an organization fosters empowerment and collaboration. The leader should promote collaborative efforts by building trust and promoting cooperative goals and empower others by sharing discretion and power. Engaging the other employees within strategic planning provide them with a freedom of choice in the process of decision making. It will allow them to do their job and realize their full potential. Transformational leaders within an organization create an environment of loyalty and dignity and helping the individuals to feel confident and encouraged. They consider the interests and needs of the other employees and make them feel that they are responsible for the actions within an organization. Salil shetty strongly believes in collaborative works in human rights where North based international organizations like Amnesty International engage into talks with the locals and international organizations of Global south (Banerjee & Jackson, 2017). He also believes that no matter how big organization is Amnesty, it is required to allow the victims to speak for themselves and stand up for unfair treatment.

An efficient leader is needed to recognize the contributions, show appreciations for excellence, and celebrate the values for creating a strong community. The individuals within an organisation often require motivation and engagement in order to achieve their goals, which are set by the organisation. The successful leader sets high expectations from the employees and for themselves. Their credibility is based upon their dedication, achievements and demonstrating daily regarding what needs to be done. By influencing the motivation within the employees, leaders can provide them rewards and recognizing their performance in the organisation. Transformational leaders play a key role in celebrating  the achievements of the employees or the team. By celebrating their achievements, the leaders make the employees feel that they are a vital part of the organisation. It also enhances the sense of belonging among the employees. When the leaders encourage their employees by the means of celebration and recognition, they inspire them to perform better. Salil shetty has been working as Human rights activist from very long and influencing individuals to speak for them and influencing others to do so. 

Part D

Leadership challenges regarding the issue

Poverty in a country mainly rises due to lack of proper education, unemployment, lack of adequate housing and increasing population. While dealing with the issue of poverty, a leader faces various problems which include noticeable increase of the individuals living under poverty and inequalities within the countries. From the studies of Almås, Kjelsrud & Somanathan, (2019), there has been rapid rise of unemployment in the country and declination in remittances. The government is also not making adequate investments and efforts in providing skill training to the individuals and as a result of this, the unemployment rates are raising rapidly in the country. The poor people are not able to speak for they are unable to take a stand against any unfair treatment.

Methods used by leaders to address and overcome challenges

  • The leaders are required to be aware of the policies adopted and the steps taken by the government to eradicate poverty in the country.
  • They are needed to empower the individuals to stand for themselves and make sure they are keeping track of the policies of the government.
  • The leaders through various international organizations should take necessary steps for providing skill trainings and education to the individuals for reducing the problem of employment (Alkire & Seth, 2015).
  • Proper arrangements are needed to be made for providing shelters to as many individuals as possible

Part E

Effect of the leadership in bringing about societal change

The leadership qualities discussed in the study helps empowering the individuals to stay aware of the governmental policies and empower them to take stand for themselves. The individuals are no longer suppressed and are aware of the steps taken by the government and are able to speak if they are not implemented (Aggarwal, 2018). It will allow the people to take skill trainings and proper education for providing themselves with decent paying jobs.

Impacts or consequences of leadership on society

From the viewpoint of Banerjee & Jackson, (2017), as more and more individuals are empowered and employed, it will boost the economy of the country as greater number of individuals are contributing towards the income of the country. With less number of people living in a particular place, hygiene of the particular place will be maintained and the risks of infection and disease will also decrease. The government will be aware of the places where the policies are not implemented and are able to act accordingly.

Conclusion

Poverty is a major issue in India and the government has been implementing various policies and regulations to eradicate the issue. From the above study  it can be concluded that, The Sustainable Development Goals are to integrated and resourced in national and local budgets and plans and are to be implemented in line to the  current human rights obligations of the state. The Individuals needs to be aware of the promises that are made by the government and what they have delivered. If the government has not delivered they are needed to be able to hold them to account through independent mechanisms. Salil Shetty is a human rights activist and has worked with various international organizations for eradicating the issue of poverty. Salil Shetty enabled ActionAid for working towards providing all its various country programs in a more equal way in working of the organization.

References

Aggarwal, S. (2018). Do rural roads create pathways out of poverty? Evidence from India. Journal of Development Economics, 133, 375-395. Retrieved on: 5 March 2019, from: http://cega.berkeley.edu/assets/cega_events/61/3A_Program_Evaluation_in_Developing_Countries.pdf.

Alkire, S., & Seth, S. (2015). Multidimensional poverty reduction in India between 1999 and 2006: Where and how?. World Development, 72, 93-108. Retrieved on: 3 March 2019, from: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:9f5d9ef6-76fd-4f2d-b7e7-ec5605acae9d/download_file?file_format=pdf&safe_filename=Multidimensional%2Bpoverty%2Breduction%2Bin%2BIndia%2Bbetween%2B1999%2Band%2B2006%2BWhere%2Band%2Bhow%2B60.pdf&type_of_work=Working+paper.

Almås, I., Kjelsrud, A., & Somanathan, R. (2019). A Behavior‐Based Approach to the Estimation of Poverty in India. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 121(1), 182-224. Retrieved on: 4 March 2019, from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/sjoe.12282.

Banerjee, S. B., & Jackson, L. (2017). Microfinance and the business of poverty reduction: Critical perspectives from rural Bangladesh. Human relations, 70(1), 63-91. Retrieved on: 5 March 2019, from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0018726716640865.

Birthal, P. S., Roy, D., & Negi, D. S. (2015). Source:   Assessing the impact of crop diversification on farm poverty in India. World Development, 72, 70-92. Retrieved on: 25 February 2019, from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pratap_Birthal2/publication/274095410_Assessing_the_Impact_of_Crop_Diversification_on_Farm_Poverty_in_India/links/56c575b608ae736e70472227.pdf.

Booth, L., Henwood, S., & Miller, P. K. (2017). Leadership and the everyday practice of Consultant Radiographers in the UK: Transformational ideals and the generation of self-efficacy. Radiography, 23(2), 125-129.. Retrieved on: 10 March 2019, from: http://insight.cumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/2671/1/Miller_LeadershipAndTheEveryday.pdf.

Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52(2), 221-258. Retrieved on: 2 March 2019, from: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:94849929-bddf-4126-b666-3a61fab593cc/download_file?safe_filename=Final%2BEAQ%2B140915%2Bwith%2BAuthor%2BDetails%2Bproofed%2B041115.pdf&file_format=application%2Fpdf&type_of_work=Journal+article.

Hazy, J. K., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2015). Towards operationalizing complexity leadership: How generative, administrative and community-building leadership practices enact organizational outcomes. Leadership, 11(1), 79-104. Retrieved on: 7 March 2019, from: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1112&context=managementfacpub.

Keane, M., & Thakur, R. (2018). Health care spending and hidden poverty in India. Research in Economics, 72(4), 435-451. Retrieved on: 26 February 2019, from: http://research.economics.unsw.edu.au/RePEc/papers/2018-02.pdf.

Maringe, F., Masinire, A., & Nkambule, T. (2015). Distinctive features of schools in multiple deprived communities in South Africa: Implications for policy and leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(3), 363-385. Retrieved on: 6 March 2019, from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.900.8801&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Martin, S. R., Côté, S., & Woodruff, T. (2016). Echoes of our upbringing: How growing up wealthy or poor relates to narcissism, leader behavior, and leader effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 59(6), 2157-2177. Retrieved on: 25 February 2019, from: http://www-2.rotman.utoronto.ca/facbios/file/Martin%20et%20al.%202016%20AMJ%20Echoes%20of%20Our%20Upbringing.pdf.

Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2015). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117(3), 1-36. Retrieved on: 24 February 2019, from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6210/6fb22387ad72a41d26403ec6851b2f0fd71c.pdf.

Smith, W. K., Lewis, M. W., & Tushman, M. L. (2016). Both/and” leadership. Harvard Business Review, 94(5), 62-70. Retrieved on: 25 February 2019, from: http://www.apdata.com/upload/file/Edition_May_2016.pdf.

Stosich, E. L. (2016). Building teacher and school capacity to teach to ambitious standards in high-poverty schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 43-53. Retrieved on: 5 March 2019, from: https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/stosich-aug2016-journal-article.pdf.

Tian, M., Risku, M., & Collin, K. (2016). A meta-analysis of distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory development, empirical evidence and future research focus. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(1), 146-164. Retrieved on: 26 February 2019, from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1741143214558576.

Willcocks, S. G., & Wibberley, G. (2015). Exploring a shared leadership perspective for NHS doctors. Leadership in Health Services, 28(4), 345-355. Retrieved on: 26 February 2019, from: http://clok.uclan.ac.uk/12765/1/__lha-013_pers-H_0005F7E1_My%20Documents_papers_steve%20leadership_sharedleadershipforclok.pdf.

 

 

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