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Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Research problem and purpose. 4

Literature Review.. 6

Framework for the study. 7

Research objectives, questions, and hypotheses. 7

Variables. 8

Research design. 9

Objective of Video communication in nursing. 10

Strengths. 11

Weaknesses. 11

References. 12


  1. a) Qualification of the researcher

The qualification of the researcher Charlotte Seckman is PhD, RN-BC, and CNE.

  1. b) Title clarity

The title discusses about online education and its benefits in nursing field. This is a quasi-experimental study, conducted between two groups on whom the differences were judged via interactive communication through video and text-based feedback. Differences were seen in teaching, cognitive, and social abilities. Presence of groups was enhanced using recommendations that suggested feedback within time, learning with interaction, and an opportunity to establish relationships with peers and faculty (Seckman, 2018).

  1. c) Abstract quality

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of interactive video communication (IVC) compared to text-based feedback on teaching, cognitive, and social communities from the perspective of online teaching. The quasi-experiment and cross sectional intervention design has been used to evaluate the effect of IVC and text feedback with respect to teaching, social, and cognitive presence of both students and faculty in online learning communities (Swartzwelder, Murphy & Murphy, 2019). The sample for this study was based on convenience, which was taken of 250 students based in ten sections of undergraduate students studying informatics in nursing. Key results from this research are that both groups preferred feedback, interaction between faculty and students, presentations and clear instructions. It was found that teaching, age, and social presence contributed highly to cognitive presence in online learning system (Kim et al., 2018).

Research problem and purpose

  1. The problem statements are as follows:
  • What are the differences between IVC and text-based feedback with respect to teaching, social, and cognitive presence in internet-based educational community?
  • How teaching and social presence can be indicators for cognitive or thinking presence?
  • How far does student features like age, gender, course program, and experience in online learning relate to teaching, society and cognition-based presence in the online learning system?
  1. b) The purpose statement is as follows:

The purpose of this study is-

  • To understand how Interactive Video Communication can be more helpful than text-based feedback in online learning communities to enhance presence of teaching, social and cognitive based skills (Olesova & Borup, 2016).
  • To understand how teaching, social, and cognitive presence might be dependent upon age, gender, course pursued by students and experiences in online learning if any (Seckman, 2018).
  1. c) Significance of the study to nursing field

This research has immense relevance to the nursing sector and its related studies. The relevance has been mentioned as follows:

  • The approach is creative and content delivery is done faster compared to text-based feedback.
  • Nursing faculties can use internet-based education to give students constructive and timely feedback, which has less chances of being missed out.
  • Innovative learning techniques can be useful for students to learn who have to commute from far places. Interactions with students and teachers happen over chats and emails (Olesova & Borup, 2016).
  1. d) Feasibility of this study:
  • The researcher was competent and had the requisite expertise to conduct this study as can be observed from her qualification.
  • Time commitment for this study was over a period of one year or two semesters, which was enough to complete the research in a nursing school university. One semester was autumn semester and another was spring semester (Cummins et al., 2016).
  • Two faculties from both the sections of the nursing undergraduate course in informatics participated. Amongst the 250 students enrolled, 100 responded to the survey based research. Among these 100, 37 were undergrad and 63 were graduate students whose age ranged between 22 to 57 years with the mean age group being 35 years. Most of the respondents had previously experienced online learning system (Cummins et al., 2016).

Literature Review

  1. Major three topics discussed:
  • Community of inquiry framework is useful for addressing the needs of online and interactive learning systems.
  • Unique and innovation based techniques like those that the interactive video communication can help in providing visual, verbal, and nonverbal feedback, which can enhance social, and community feedback (Peddle et al., 2019).
  • Emerging educational techniques are needed to be used to enhance teaching, social, and cognitive presence in text-based feedback as well as online video-based learning.
  1. b) Model or theory used:

Only one model or framework has been identified in the literature review, which is the Community of Inquiry.

  1. c) Does literature review describe the current nature of the research problem?

Yes, the literature review describes the current nature of the research problem. The concept of community-based inquiry in nursing education is fewer than other sectors of education. Teaching and social presence have been seen as facilitators for online based learning satisfaction with the requirement of verbal and nonverbal cues which help in providing feedback on time (Peddle et al., 2019).

  1. d) Studies summarized

The CQI or community based inquiry is an evaluative framework which is used to study the concept and effectiveness of presence in online based learning techniques. Social presence occurs during creation of relationships, identifying the online community and cognitive presence occurs during interaction, discussion with the community they are in. it is required that each, and every presence factor interact with each other to boost online learning process (McCutcheon et al., 2015).

Framework for the study

  1. The study’s framework, which is CQI or Community based Inquiry is explicit in nature as it describes the evaluative tendencies of presence in online learning. Important concepts found in the framework relate to the interaction between social, learning and teaching presence in online education. It is also about core concepts of social, cognitive, and teaching presence where the teacher motivates students and helps him realize the goals to be achieved (McCutcheon et al., 2015).
  2. Yes, the framework presents a relationship between two concepts. Example- In a study of over 180 Facebook users it was found that use of technology was mostly influenced by strong social presence.

Research objectives, questions, and hypotheses

  1. A) Yes, this article has objectives of research. The objectives are described below.
  2. B) Objective of Video communication in nursing:
  • The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of IVC learning over text-based learning on teaching, social and as well as cognitive presence of nursing in online learning committee.
  • Finding out the difference in COI process in the three basic sections by using COIQ technique. The COIQ or Community of Inquiry Questionnaire is the most effective method used to integrate video communicating in students.
  • The feedback received shows an exceptional positivity of students on three presence of education.


  1. Major study variables

The major study variables are teaching, social, and cognitive presence.

  1. b) Variable type

Yes, the variables are dependent on each other and is studied in the context of impact of interactive video based communication and text-based feedback.

  1. c) Conceptual definition

Teaching presence- It is defined by how properly a teacher communicates goals, activities, motivates students, engages with them, and provides feedback, which is constructive and timely.

Social presence- Students identifying with online learning community might engage in open-based communication while also developing personal relationships.

Cognitive presence- It relates to one’s ability to gain information by discussion and interacting with the community (Swartzwelder, Murphy & Murphy, 2019).

  1. d) Operational definition of variables

Teaching presence- Learning management system.

Social presence- audio, video, video recording and collaboration

Cognitive presence- Conferencing with individuals or groups and interactive learning experience.

  1. e) Extraneous variable

Extraneous variables used are sense of community, perceived learning, and satisfaction. These extraneous variables are related to teaching, social, and cognitive presence. Online learning systems and tools used in this method can be used to gain satisfaction as well as help in extracting presence in online study (Kim et al., 2018).

  1. f) Demographic variables:

Age, gender, race, previous experience in any online course and name of degree course pursued.

 Research design

  1. Design type

This research design is based on quasi-experimental.

  1. b) How design type matches study objectives, questions and hypotheses?

The quasi-experimental design matches the study’s objectives, questions and hypotheses because the sample was convenience based and the sample size was not randomly assigned. The relationship between teaching, social and cognitive presence was evaluated from different perspectives, and hypotheses states that social presence is based on the interaction between teaching and cognitive presence as well as perceived learning (Seckman, 2018).

  1. c) How design type matches study purpose?

It is an evaluative study therefore quasi-experimental research design is suited to this.

  1. If the study includes a treatment or intervention?

Yes, this study includes a treatment or intervention, which is cross-sectional interventional design use to evaluate the comparison between interactive video communication and text-based feedback on a selected university school of nursing.

  1. e) Pilot study findings

To design the major study, pilot study based on regression model that evaluated prior experience of students and teachers in online-based learning systems were done.

Objective of Video communication in nursing

  1. A) The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of IVC learning over text based learning on teaching, social and as well as cognitive presence of nursing in online learning committee (Choi, Song, & Oh, 2015).
  2. B) To find out the difference in COI process in the three basic sections by using COIQ technique. (Borup, West & Thomas, 2015).


This paper clearly states experimental observations of the methods implemented for IVC learning.

  1. A) IVC based education gives access to rapid problem solving through social communication of student in COI committee.
  2. B) Students start to understand the subjects and a heavy relation is observed for the nursing students in social, teaching, and cognitive presence (Forbes et al., 2016). Students are more technologically advance and use social media platforms for faster and reliable feedbacks. Video learning is effective in attractive learning, which motivates both the instructor and the student to communicate.


Two Major drawbacks of online communications are:

  1. A) The main threat in video communication is the security of the chat and feedback processes. Social media is facing many issues regarding security and reliability (Forbes et al., 2016).
  2. B) Internet connection and web-accessing software are required for e learning or communicating with everyone. Students need to accumulate various skills to access this software, which is a significant issue standing as a barrier in the path of online communication in nursing (Borup, West & Thomas, 2015).


Borup, J., West, R. E., & Thomas, R. (2015). The impact of text versus video communication on instructor feedback in blended courses. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(2), 161-184.

Choi, Y., Song, E., & Oh, E. (2015). Effects of teaching communication skills using a video clip on a smart phone on communication competence and emotional intelligence in nursing students. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 29(2), 90-95.

Cummins, M., Rajan, N. S., Hodge, C., & Gouripeddi, R. (2016). Patterns and perceptions of asynchronous video discussion in a graduate health sciences course. Journal of Nursing Education55(12), 706-710.

Forbes, H., Oprescu, F. I., Downer, T., Phillips, N. M., McTier, L., Lord, B., ... & Simbag, V. (2016). Use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education: A review. Nurse education today, 42, 53-56

Kim-Godwin, Y. S., Turrise, S., Lawson, S., & Scott, M. (2018). Student Perceptions of Peer Evaluation in an Online RN-to-BSN Course. Nurse educator43(6), 317-321.

McCutcheon, K., Lohan, M., Traynor, M., & Martin, D. (2015). A systematic review evaluating the impact of online or blended learning vs. face‐to‐face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Journal of advanced nursing71(2), 255-270.

Olesova, L., & Borup, J. (2016). Using audio and video feedback to increase instructor presence in asynchronous online courses. In Creating teacher immediacy in online learning environments (pp. 235-251). IGI Global.

Peddle, M., Mckenna, L., Bearman, M., & Nestel, D. (2019). Development of non-technical skills through virtual patients for undergraduate nursing students: An exploratory study. Nurse education today73, 94-101.

Seckman, C. (2018). Impact of interactive video communication versus text-based feedback on teaching, social, and cognitive presence in online learning communities. Nurse educator43(1), 18-22.

Swartzwelder, K., Murphy, J., & Murphy, G. (2019). The Impact of Text-Based and Video Discussions on Student Engagement and Interactivity in an Online Course. Journal of Educators Online16(1), n1.

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