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Introduction. 3

PICO.. 3

Two Database for literature search. 4

Selecting one database and strategy to find relevant literature. 4

Reference: 7


Post-operative pain management is an important area to focus since despite pharmacological methods used to relieve pain there is still reports and complaints about pain from the patients. The paper thereby tries to find out pain management procedure through evidence based practice so that post operative pain of the patients can be better controlled and managed. However for literature search strategies a PICO framework is to be developed first so that proper answer relating to use of non-pharmacological method like music therapy can be brought into the surface. In case of evidence based practice PICO is very important in case of evidence based practice and thereby is used here. Relevant question based on use of music therapy for pain management is presented through the below given PICO table.


P- Patient or Problem

What is the characteristic of the patient and what is this group of patients referred as?

What is the issue post operation for the group of patients?

I-                Intervention

Which main intervention is considered for this group of patients?

C- Comparison

What is the main alternative treatment in comparison to the intervention that is thought about?

O- Outcome

What is the expected outcome and if the outcome is relevant?

Table: 1

Two Database for literature search

The data bases that are selected are both focused on the subject or the topic post operative pain management and this brings in focus the use of music therapy. The two data bases identified in this context include Jstor and google scholar (Sfakianakis et al., 2017). Both the database contains a huge number of data and information about this topic and thereby helps in relevant literature review or literature search (Sfakianakis et al., 2017). However one database is selected from these two and that is given below in details so that it helps in better understanding of how the literature search will be carried on.

Selecting one database and strategy to find relevant literature


Search strategy

Google Scholar “(Effect of Music Therapy Intervention in Acute Postoperative Pain among Obese Patients. International Journal of Caring Sciences10(2), 937.


Finding key words, key concepts, relevant idea, similarity with the provided topic and some other strategies are also to be incorporated

Table: 2

The database that is selected from the two databases and this one, Google Scholar is filled with adequate number of articles and journals that is based on the aspect of postoperative pain management and relief for the patients (Sfakianakis et al., 2017). This gives the appropriate information and knowledge about the literature that is required or essential in this case and also helps in bringing new information and idea on the same (Liu &Petrini, 2015).The search strategy to be employed to bring out the relevant literature include finding key concepts like pain relief, patient satisfaction, patient feeling, postoperative phase and the experience of the patients and others (Sfakianakis et al., 2017). The search strategy is focused on knowing more about the questions that are already formed such as the kind of interventions essential or required for people in the postoperative stage, the expected outcome of the intervention, any other interventions in comparison to the selected intervention or the intervention that has been thought about (Sfakianakis et al., 2017). The database brings out a number of articles and journals and among them the appropriate literature to be found is from the above given journal in Table no. 2. The journal consists of rich literature that helps in knowing about music therapy and what are the qualities of that (Sin & Chow, 2015). The journal cites the fact that music is a form of soothing experience and it helps in relaxing and comforting a patient. The nerve, the blood pressure and heart rate also keeps under control due to this music therapy (Liu&Petrini, 2015). This is being used by many nurses and is also one of the nursing standards in many a place to tackle the pain of the patients who have undergone surgery (Liu &Petrini, 2015).The journal talks about the effect of music therapy and suggest that the effect of music therapy is immense and this is perfect for calming a patient and also providing the right kind of comfort for a patient when the patient is in distress or is in pain (Sin & Chow, 2015). This literature adds to the meaning of the evidence based research topic and also brings in the forefront the answers of the questions that is presented in Table no. 1 (Mondanaro et al., 2017).The literature search strategy is all about looking for relevant answers in connection with the question and that in a way helps in evidence based practice process or technique (Liu &Petrini, 2015). The literature search on this particular topic also provides evidence of the fact that there is indeed music therapy that helps in postoperative pain relief and that it is being used and is recognized by many around the world (Sin & Chow, 2015).The search strategy is also based on evidence based practice process for music therapy and this contributes a lot into forming the evidence based practice base (Mondanaro et al., 2017). Evidence based practice is all about looking for evidences or pre used examples on the same line and the literature search thereby helps in advancing the process of evidence based practice and also helps in advancing the findings on the concept of music therapy being used as a therapy for relieving pain of the patients in their post operative stage (Sin & Chow, 2015).The literature search strategy thereby includes all the important points as per the topic such as pain relive, evidence based practice process on music therapy and some others that have been already mentioned (Sin& Chow, 2015).Music is also a form of mood enhancer and it is used tactfully in many cases as the literature search on this says. This uplifts ones mood ad also helps in boosting ones hope and confidence and leaves a relaxing and soothing effect on mind.


Krishnaswamy, P., & Nair, S. (2016). Effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety levels of cancer patients: A pilot study. Indian journal of palliative care22(3), 307.

Liu, Y., &Petrini, M. A. (2015). Effects of music therapy on pain, anxiety, and vital signs in patients after thoracic surgery. Complementary therapies in medicine23(5), 714-718.

Mondanaro, J. F., Homel, P., Lonner, B., Shepp, J., Lichtensztein, M., & Loewy, J. V. (2017). Music Therapy Increases Comfort and Reduces Pain in Patients Recovering from Spine Surgery. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, NJ)46(1), E13-E22.

Nelson, K., Adamek, M., &Kleiber, C. (2017). Relaxation training and postoperative music therapy for adolescents undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Pain Management Nursing18(1), 16-23.

Sfakianakis, M. Z., Karteraki, M., Panayiota, K., Christaki, O., & Chatzikou, V. (2017). Effect of Music Therapy Intervention in Acute Postoperative Pain among Obese Patients. International Journal of Caring Sciences10(2), 937.


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