Table of Content
Culture and history of human beings are driven by different purpose of their activities. Australian author Widdowson provides relevant linguistics information about Australian literature through involving in different process and methods. Every human uses their brain to achieve outstanding role and essential material in everyday. The thesis statement of this essay is to express critical reflection of previous reading development and different theories of English Curriculum of Australia in Queensland. The essay also discusses relevant approaches and strategies of reading and writing as well as has to reflect on applied theories in Australian English communication culture. Similarly, there are several theories and approaches to transfer different codes and sensory input to reduce complexity of language barrier by using bottom up methods. Moreover, top down methods also provide semantic data and information about English language and supply understandable meaning and expectation of new words. Furthermore, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority (ACAA) plays a major role for their citizen and children by investing bottom up and top down methods.
In order to develop an effective and efficient curriculum activities in English curricular activities in Queensland, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority takes different strategies and methods. In this essay, researcher chooses two methods of early development theories for reading and teaching to support Australian English curricular activities. Statement of Hodges et al. (2016), development activities and methods help education authority and management of Queensland to take policies and objectives for their children and education system. Two methods of development theories in Queensland are following
The Bottom up methods
According to observations of Australian and American psychologist Paul Martin Jay S. Birnbrauer and Albert Ellis proposed that there are some difficulties in writing and translating of letters. Bottom up methods of reading and teaching in Australia is very much difficulties for their students and learner in 1950. As per the assessment of Hill (2012), there is a connection between two words when a student tries to provide speech of their writing. At that time, child educational system and teacher taught English letter first and then pronunciation to students. Thus, Australian government conduct a research about their child educational system to deduce and mitigate problems through Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority. Organisational duty expresses application of bottom up methods in their educational system to introduce an effective and prominent model of education system. Statement of MacNaughton & Williams (2008), this model provides series of different stages in English curricular system in Queensland to input different information and autonomous activities. Similarly, this method is used in transmuting and submission of text information.
In English language systematic and symbolic representation of letters are very much important to make a word and represent its sound. According to Bottom up methods, students have to learn the reading skills and basics phonics of words to reduce complexity of reading and pronouncing of words. In 1970, Philip Gough, Australian psychologist works on the title one second of Reading to make perfect sequence of reading and techniques for words and letters. The bottom up theories and approaches of English reading provide relevant information about reading techniques and proper pronunciation of letters to children by using appropriate policies. In reference to observation of psychologist Gough and Cosky systematic assemble of words and proper spelling techniques for the educator in base level education system. Which helps to enabled strategies and methods for higher authorities of Queensland uses blends and digraphs. In addition to this, conceptual understanding and knowledge about sound relationship is insufficient in English reading for curricular activities for their students. In order to reduce complexity in pronunciation and transparency of sounds, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and reporting Authority provide standard sound and pronunciation of English letters. As well as, comment of McLachlan & Arrow (2010), students have to learn grammatical and semantic knowledge of reading regarding ACARA guidance. Phonemic awareness has been understood with distinguishable and individual sounds. Thus listening sounds will be easy to pronounce with easy words dividing with c, a, t information to pronounce the word cat in top down order. It will be easy for pronouncing more complex word like Bergeron. For consonant clusters are identified first like “bl” for pronouncing “blast”.
Furthermore, academic authority initiates different procedure of children educational system to manipulate complexity of letters through relationship with sounds and pattern of spelling. Additionally argument of Palmer (1981), bottom up methods helps to solve basic problem in children educational system and merge them to make solution of larger one. Moreover, this strategy supports to analyse relevant information and concept about previous English curricular system as well as present education system. After learning symbol of English alphabets, teachers have to provide sounds system and phonemic information about letters and sounds. There are some difficulties in word formation to produce proper meaning and useful manner as well as students has to try to produce perfect sounds of vowels and consonants. As phonic plays a major role and directly impact on sounds and pronunciation, hence, students and children have to take opportunity to learn appropriate phonics instruction.
Similarly, student have to learn about the phenomenon of word decoding system and work on vocabulary techniques of words sound and formation techniques of appropriate words. According to the comment of McLachlan & Arrow (2010), English curricular activities strength of students and effectiveness of sounds and sentence formation, students have to learn perfect grammar and increase stock of words. Moreover, phonics provides sufficient information about meaning or their writing and context of different article. Additionally, educator and students have to develop an effective relationship within educational environment to create an effective channel for English curricular activities in Queensland (QLD). Alternatively Sherren (2006) state that, Australian government have to develop some policies and regulation for their child education to make a solid base in English for their upper level education system. Hence, management of higher authority in educational system have to introduce effective channel for base level education system to increase the affectivity of basic knowledge of children.
Moreover, management of child educational system in Queensland have to develop an understanding between sounds and spelling words by using different strategies and awareness program. To find out the pronunciation and sounds of different letters I use some relevant phenomenon about English curricular activities of teaching and learning activities. On the other hand, I conduct a small scale research about children knowledge about sounds and English vowel and consonant by using appropriate techniques. Moreover, children are sensible about instrumental sound and gaming, hence, provides words sound and spelling of letters using instrument and gaming strategies. Thus, bottom up methods is utilised for increasing the knowledge and talent of students which can help their position in international education system.
Top down theory of Reading
The theory starts with cognitive processing as it is controlled by higher level of brain. Effective remuneration with drill and kill behavioural notion followed in reading instructions. Knowledge, beliefs and expectation are included in this process of cognitive learning. A prediction check process with a game of psycholinguistic guessing is followed through inherent capability of reading. Natural combinative power helps to build interaction between reader and texts. In order to make a meaningful context, reading and speaking learning processes should give an exposure. Background knowledge is essential for the reader to follow cognitive method of learning which follows appropriate placing of dialogues in reading. Information is joined in the meaningful sentences for better understandings. Effective reading capabilities with an efficient activity for purpose meet expectation in the learning process. Stress is considered more on the place of pre reading activities and then decoding gets started with less stress (Airey et al. 2017). Word recognition can be achieved through reader's knowledge of the topic.
In order to follow schema theory, exploration of reading equations is implemented with effective top down reading instructions. Appropriate decoding of task is dependent upon learners’ background knowledge and reading instruction. Followed structure and individualising of knowledge helps to comprehend exact category of knowledge about topic. Mixed up with current knowledge and new information is implemented with the influences of top down theory of reading. Straightforward reading and better interpretation with the words are served by implications of top down theory. No knowledge about the background will help students to relate aftermaths. As per the Australian curriculum, reading and writing capabilities with high frequency words and familiar words is assessed and reported by Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). Text recognising is important from storyteller and those experiences are gained to boost up own performance in the learning process. Character discussing with scenario and connection making with students are getting priority in modern complex approaches. Students are able to gather personal ideas and specific identifications about their opinions through the literary text and efficient discussion. Examples for top down theory of reading can be better understood with an example like ‘apple’. Previous sight, sample, taste, smell is used to identify top down processing of perception to pronounce this word ‘apple’.
Comprehension learning is the first part in top down theory of learning. After that phrase processing, word processing and letter processing are maintained in this application of theory in reading. Feature processing is last part in top down reading methods. Linguistic knowledge learning is not only maintained in learning process of reading but also involvement of background knowledge in the process is taken considered. The main purpose of these reading methods can be implemented by encouraging students to focus on ideas of efficient understanding. Meaning grasping is necessary to develop an understanding of specified topic (Atkinson et al. 2017). Encouragement in acquiring knowledge and useful clues according to concepts of topic are considered for achieving better reading technique. Students got help through determining pronunciation from a specific text in mentioned topic as per their Australian English Curriculum in QLD. Intelligence and experience of learning provide better credibility on learning process of reading. Details are refined and defined as per entire specification in validation of model from top down reading process in learning.
Capacity in the cognitive learning process is taken credited as per changes of new human behaviours. Only extraction from text is not considered as per new process of reading technique in top down reading. Hence better knowledge about concept can be achieved through connecting information with the topics. Usage of own intelligence and analysing concept about understanding topic are processed through top down theory of reading. Better comprehension about decoding a process into smaller units like letters and words are maintained through top down reading practices. Exposure to reading methods and learning activities about specific writing help to accomplish task in a smooth manner (understood.org, 2019). Aspects of reading, learning and pronunciations can be better achieved through top down process in reading. Ability of readers is dependent upon following the syntactic and semantic system in predicting core assumption about knowledge for specified topic.
Efficient strategy should be discussed by me to activate knowledge of students in purpose of reading. In this academic industry, necessity of implication of theories depends upon better understanding of learning process. Importance of teaching system is totally relying on development of theories in learning process. Questions will be asked randomly about knowledge to fulfil purpose of reading. I will provide students efficient activity work and worksheets to reduce their complexity in making question. Effective and necessary knowledge will help to them to make prediction about learning modules as per Australian English Curriculum in QLD. Meaningful learning can be implemented through emphasizing approaches in reading technique. Act of effective reading technique can be brought to readers to develop specified tasks. Pre reading technique will be helpful to predict and preview schema. Background knowledge is considered as per cultural, linguistic or historical comprehension. Interpretation of all necessary information as per model and ideas are responsible to fulfil top down theory in reading technique of learning process (Mintzberg, 2017). Primary objective of reading in top down theory is fulfilled by effective identification and recognition of words in reading. Prediction making and meeting point to point expectation of the topic is implemented in top down process of reading.
Better interaction with listening skills, speaking powers, reading capabilities and writing tactics are essential for children in learning process. A developed literacy rich environment can be promoted through effective research methodologies with engaging of both students and parents in learning environment. Better learning with pronunciation of words and effective teaching tactics help students to grasp knowledge in a correct manner. Efficient strategy and approaches as reflected by Australian curriculum can be better developed with appropriate application of reading theories. Development theories like Bottom up theories and Top down theories are incorporated in context for better utilising reflection of reading theories on the Australian curriculum. Step by step solving method is followed in bottom up learning process while work is done with abstract concept in top down learning in reading. Alternatively, bottom up approaches is built up with phonics, letter, vowels and syllabus. Bottom up reading process is text based while top down reading process is reader based. Hence mastering specific rules in making a building block of the learning system can be done with effective decoding, repetition and memorization process of developing theories in Australian curriculum.
Hill, S. (2012). Developing early literacy: Assessment and teaching. Eleanor Curtain Publishing.(Online) Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Developing_Early_Literacy.html?id=LP9VAAAACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y
MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2008). Techniques for teaching young children: Choices for theory and practice. Pearson Education Australia.(Online) Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Techniques_for_Teaching_Young_Children.html?id=RvSkAAAACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y
McLachlan, C. & Arrow, A. (2010). Alphabet and phonological awareness: Can it be enhanced in their early childhood setting? International Research in Early Childhood Education 1(1), 84-94.(Online) Retrieved from : https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1151138
Sherren, K. (2006). Pillars of society: the historical context for sustainability and higher education in Australia. In Sustainability in the Australasian University Context. Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing Group.(Online) Retrieved from: <https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/28276
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Atkinson, L., Slade, L., Powell, D., & Levy, J. P. (2017). Theory of mind in emerging reading comprehension: A longitudinal study of early indirect and direct effects. Journal of experimental child psychology, 164, 225-238. Retrieved from http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/66668/1/ToM_and_Reading_Comprehension_JECP_FinalAccepted.pdf
Airey, J., Lauridsen, K. M., Räsänen, A., Salö, L., & Schwach, V. (2017). The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals?. Higher Education, 73(4), 561-576. Retrieved from https://jyx.jyu.fi/bitstream/handle/123456789/53475/aireyetalexpansionofenglishmediuminstructioin.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Palmer, W. S. (1981). Reading theories and research: A search for similarities. The English Journal, 70(8), 63-66. (Online) Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/817749?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents (Accessed on 17 January 2019)
Understood.org (2019) 11-Methods-For-Teaching-Reading, Retrieved from: https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-school/instructional-strategies/11-methods-for-teaching-reading (Accessed on 15 January, 2019)
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