1. Writing performance and moral reasoning in business education?

 This work is performed by Johnson, Insley, Motwani and Zbib (1993) for investigating link of the moral reasoning to the performance and demographic variables in the business education. In this work the moral reasoning is defined as the base of decision making mainly when the individual faces the moral dilemmas.  This research mainly emphasizes on using ethics in the written communication in the business. There is a relationship between the writing skills and moral reasoning of an individual which has discussed in this work. However, the author failed to establish any connection between the written communication and moral reasoning in the business. Although it has shown that there are certain ethical decisions which are made by the writer in the written communication. The Mackenzie (2010) has shown in his work that use of communication minimize the boundaries in business thus reduces the ethical dilemmas which are contradictory to this work. This work also does not shade any light on the digital communication or its importance to a workplace.

2. Manager communication and workplace trust: Understanding manager and employee perceptions in the e-world

According to the work of Mackenzie (2010) in the present time, the workplace is filled with the people who connect with their contractors, managers, employees and clients digitally. This article mainly emphasizes in studying the changes caused by digital communication in the communication behaviour of the employees and managers mainly in terms of trust. The article fails to elaborate the changes it causes in the business functions in terms of advantage and disadvantage. The work of Kick, Contacos-Sawyer and Thomas (2015) also supports the findings of the research such as use of digital communication has reduces the need of face to face interaction. It also contradicts this work in term of establishing trust between manager and employees by digital communication. The use of face to face communication is more effective for management but the increasing use of digitalization has altered the limits of business community by providing alternative worksites and change the role of manager as it reduces the impact of the role of manager in the organization.

3. Graphical models for machine learning and digital communication

The author of this work is Frey, Brendan and Frey (1998) in which they describe the various problems in the digital communication and machine learning such as error correcting codes, disruption of the data resources and others. This work provides understanding of the technical requirement for establishing digital communication and the errors it can have but does not highlight its use in the workplace. Flynn and Kahn (2003) also support the learning from this book that there are certain complexities which one can face in digital communication. This book can provide understanding about the problems mainly technical in establishing digital communication but fails to elaborate its use or impact in the workplace.

4. E-Mail rules: a business guide to managing policies, security, and legal issues for E-mail and digital communication

The Flynn and Kahn (2003) has studied use of digital communication in the work place. This work shows that the companies depend on e-mail as the critical business tool without considering the systems and policies that are required for the safety of information. The company use this mode of digital communication for exchanging important information like trade secrets, payments, documents and others. The Frey et al (1998) has already mentioned in their book that the use of digital communication involves certain complexities and errors and the one discussed in this work is among them. They have successfully shown in their work that the companies need to implement safety kit for the protection and managing legal issue along with the methods. The only weakness of this study is it fails to discuss same for the other modes of digital communication.

5. How Generation Z's Reliance on Digital Communication Can Affect Future Workplace Relationships

This research paper was prepared by Kick et al (2015) which demonstrates the changes in the methods of communication with time mainly among the generation born in mid to late 1990s. this generation mainly rely on social media which influence their ability of using interpersonal skills which is important for establishing relationship between the employer and supervisor which is must for gaining objective of company. This paper has discussed different problems cause due to dependency of workers on digital communication among which miscommunication is also one. The weakness of this work is it has not shade light the impact of digital communication on the employees of other age group. The Colbert, Yee and George (2016) also supports the finding of this paper in their work. This research paper is effective in providing problems cause by using digital communication for a particular section of workforce and the gives guideline for solving such problems such as by developing policies relevant to the use of cell phones and social media, emphasizing on the significance of the written and oral communication skills in the recruitment, job descriptions and others.

6. The Digital Workforce and the Workplace of the Future

This journal is published by Colbert et al (2016) which explores the different ways by which the increasing use of technology impact of the approach of individuals towards their work. In this journal the people divided into two groups one digital natives, who are major user of technology and digital immigrants, who are the adults that has adopted the technology. In this journal the author has shown that digital workforce provide benefit to the company but the impact of it is different for both. For the digital native, the use digital communication improves their work practice but for digital immigrants, the use of technology for communication reduces their effectiveness of work. The Benson, Johnson and Kuchinke (2002) has already shown in their work that the use of technology in the workplace has different impact for every employee. This work fails to show the causes of it and solutions which can improve the performance of digital immigrants.

7. The Use of Technology in the Digital Workplace: A Framework for Human Resource Development

This book is written by Benson et al (2002) which emphasize on the challenges faced by the human resource department (HRD) of a company by in promoting the learning and performance of employees by using technology. The digital communication enables the HRD to deliver training to the employees irrespective of the demographic location of them. It also enables HRD to communicate the policies and information for improving the performance within no time but they are facing challenges such as lack of effectiveness. The weakness of this work is it does not discuss the importance of it in the HRD. Darics (2016) has contradictory perception towards this work as he describes the use of digital communication can cause digital innovation in the company. This work only elaborates the barriers faced by the HRD in using digital communication and its solution.

8. Digital media in work place interactions

This work is written by Darics (2016) which has discussed the virtuality caused by use of digital media for interaction in workplace. In the present time the organizations are using virtual teams by using digital communication which has enhanced their performance and improved the productivity. It also impacts on the language used by employees which is highly specialised. The use of virtual team can make the team work easier but also originate issues like trust among team members as in virtual teams, there is lack of interactions which makes them understand each other and therefore form trust. The work of Mackenzie (2010) also supported the finding of this study that the use of digital communication cause lack of trust among the workforce. this piece of work majorly discusses the use of digital communication in formation of virtual team but does not provide any information about use of it in physical environment.

9. The influence of internal communication on employee engagement: A pilot study

This paper is written by Dery, Sebastian and Van der Meulen (2017) which focuses on illustrating the role of IT leaders in converting a workplace into the digital one which involves digital communication in the company. This work shows that for establishing digital communication effectively, the two dimensions-responsive leadership is required along with the employee connectedness. This work explains the way by which the digital communication can be used in the organization in an effective way. The weakness of this work is it mainly emphasize on establishing digital communication but does not describe its impact on the employees. The work of Benson et al (2002) has supported this study as for establishing effective digital communication, it is important to have leadership. This work is effective in providing information about the ways by which digital communication can be implemented in the workplace effectively.

10. New workers, new workplace? Getting the balance right

This is the work of Cunningham (2010) for advising the ways by which the organization can implement the social media strategies. This work shows that the workforce of new generation is comfortable and plays important role in use of social media as a form of digital communication in the workplace. In the past time the employees communicate with each other face to face which now transformed into the digital sphere. The weakness of this work is it does not discuss the impact of using social media for communication on the employees other than new generation and its outcome. The work of Kick et al (2015) does not support the outcome of this work as according to them use of social media in workplace reduces the interpersonal skill of the workforce. this work is effective in providing knowledge about the ways by which social media strategy can be implement as digital communication in an organization but fails to elaborate its impact.


Benson, A. D., Johnson, S. D., & Kuchinke, K. P. (2002). The use of technology in the digital      workplace: A framework for human resource development. Advances in Developing    Human Resources4(4), 392-404.

Colbert, A., Yee, N., & George, G. (2016). The digital workforce and the workplace of the           future.

Cunningham, J. (2010). New workers, new workplace? Getting the balance right. Strategic             Direction26(1), 5-6.

Darics, E. (2016). Digital media in workplace interactions. The Routledge handbook of     language and digital communication, 197-211.

Dery, K., Sebastian, I. M., & van der Meulen, N. (2017). The Digital Workplace is Key to            Digital Innovation. MIS Quarterly Executive16(2).

Flynn, N., & Kahn, R. (2003). E-Mail rules: a business guide to managing policies, security,        and legal issues for E-mail and digital communication. Amacom Books.

Frey, B. J., Brendan, J. F., & Frey, B. J. (1998). Graphical models for machine learning and        digital communication. MIT press.

Johnson, J. L., Insley, R., Motwani, J., & Zbib, I. (1993). Writing performance and moral             reasoning in business education?. Journal of Business Ethics12(5), 397-406.

Kick, A. L., Contacos-Sawyer, J., & Thomas, B. (2015, July). How Generation Z's reliance          on digital communication can affect future workplace relationships. In Competition   Forum (Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 214). American Society for Competitiveness.

Mackenzie, M. L. (2010). Manager communication and workplace trust: Understanding   manager and employee perceptions in the e-world. International Journal of         Information Management30(6), 529-541.

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